Regulation of TRP Signalling by Ion Channel Translocation Between Cell Compartments
Alexander C. Cerny and Armin Huber
The TRP (transient receptor potential) family of ion channels is a heterogeneous family of calcium permeable cation channels that is subdivided into seven subfamilies: TRPC ("Canonical"), TRPV ("Vanilloid"), TRPM
("Melastatin"), TRPA ("Ankyrin"), TRPN ("NOMPC"), TRPP ("Polycystin"), and TRPML ("Mucolipin"). TRP-mediated ion currents across the cell membrane are determined by the single channel conductance, by the fraction of activated channels, and by the total amount of TRP channels present at the plasma membrane. In many cases, the amount of TRP channels at the plasma membrane is altered in response to physiological stimuli by translocation of channels to and from the plasma membrane. Regulated translocation has been described for channels of the TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, and TRPA family and is achieved by vesicular transport of these channels along cellular exocytosis and endocytosis pathways. This review summarizes the stimuli and signalling cascades involved in the translocation of TRP channels and highlights interactions of TRP channels with proteins of the endocytosis and exocytosis machineries.